The world of adapters is diverse and not easy to understand. This is due to the wide variety of thread and plug sizes that optics and accessories may have.
In astronomy, two plug sizes have become established, which are often indicated in the old unit inches ("):
Many eyepieces, but also cameras, have connectors in one of these two sizes, which can be inserted into the telescope’s focuser.
If a 1.25" connector is to be inserted in a focuser with a 2" connector, a 1.25"/2" adapter is required. This is an example of a reducer adapter: where a connection is reduced from a larger size to a smaller one. The reverse is called an extension adapter.
Another very important category of adapters is camera adapters. These are used to connect cameras to optics or to accessories. The T2 thread (M42x0.75), which enables a screw connection, is very well established for this purpose. Lighter cameras without many accessories can also be easily connected to the telescope via a socket.
For astrophotography it is important that the aperture is large enough to illuminate the sensor (no vignetting) and the optical length matches the focal point.